This comprehensive listing is gathered from various sources such as published cosmetic journals, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry catalogs, and supplier provided ingredient literature.
Propanediol is a natural solvent, produced sustainably from corn sugar. It's quite a multi-tasker: can be used to improve skin moisturization, as a solvent, to boost preservative efficacy or to influence the sensory properties of the end formula.
Panthenol is Pro-Vitamin B5, meaning it is a precursor to Vitamin B (Panthenoic Acid). Provitamin B5 stabilises the skin's barrier function, reducing the amount of water lost through the skin. This, in turn, improves skin texture and elasticity, making Panthenol ideal for treating dry, scaly or coarse skin. In addition to its moisture retaining and softening properties, Panthenol also reduces itching, redness and suppresses inflammation. Thanks to its soothing and repairing properties, Panthenol also helps relieve inflamed acne and sensitised or irritated skin.
Polysorbate 20 is an emulsifier that is used in formulation when they contain both oil soluble and water-soluble ingredients. It consists of a water-loving hydrophilic head and an oil-loving hydrophobic tail (lauric acid), that helps combine the aqueous phase of the formulation to the oil phase of the formulation. As an emulsifier it reduces the surface tension by positioning itself at the oil/water interface, which has a stabilizing effect on the emulsion.
Polyglutamic acid (PGA) is a water-soluble peptide that is derived from fermented soybeans. Clinical studies show that it holds upto 5000 times it’s weight in water (that’s five times more than Hyaluronic Acid). PGA also shows mild occlusive properties and hence works great to seal in the water molecules that it attracts into the epidermal layers of the skin.
Palmitoyl Tripeptide - 1
Palmitoyl tripeptide-1, also called pal-GHK, is a messenger peptide for collagen renewal. It works by stimulating the synthesis of Collagen and Glycosaminoglycan, which reinforces the epidermis and results in diminishing the wrinkles.
Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide - 7
Palmitoyl tetrapeptide - 7 or pal-GQPR is a fragment of immunoglobulin G. Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7, and it decreases IL-6 secretion in a basal setting, and serves as an anti-inflammatory after exposure to UVB-irradiation.
These two peptides work synergistically to restore and maintain the skin’s youthful appearance by signaling to cells to produce more collagen. Numerous studies have proven that these two peptides together show great their anti-aging and anti-wrinkle properties. Changes in reduction of wrinkle depth, volume and density, skin roughness and complexity, as well as a decrease
of the area occupied by deep wrinkles, and an increase in skin tone, are some of the benefits observed and concluded in blind studies.
Polyglyceryl-10 Oleate is a plant based non-ionic ester emulsifier that forms stable oil-water emulsions with low viscosity, and has shown to provide enhanced moisturising factor to the formulation.
Pantolactone is a humectant to help the skin retain moisture, leaving skin looking glowy, healthy and plump, but it also acts as a solvent for other ingredients.